Location: India

Wednesday, October 18, 2006

Sloka - 45 and 46

Hari OM,

sthaaNau purushhavad.hbhaantyaa kR^itaa brahmaNi jiivataa .
jiivasya taattvike ruupe tasmindR^ishhTe nivartate .. 45..

Pada artha:
Shaanav: in the post
Purushavat: like the man
Braantaa: because of delusion
Krutha: is made
Brahmani: in the Brahman
Jeevitaa: the jiva-hood(individyuality)
Jeevasya: of the jiva
Taathvika roope: in the real nature
Tasmin: in the Self
Drushte: where seen
Nivartatae: is destroyed.

Brahman appears to be a ‘Jiva’ because of ignorance, just as a post appears to be a ghost. The ego-centric-individuality is destroyed when the real nature of the ‘Jiva’ is realised as the Self.

Acharya in the last sloka explained that the it is only because of ignorance that the ever present reality is forgotten just like the necklace in one’s neck. The same is explained here in this sloka also.

Acharya here is explaining that Brahman appears to be Jiva only due to ignorance. Jiva is limited and is associated with the causal, subtle and gross bodies. As we have learnt in the first few slokas of Laghu vakya vritti, these are but limitations and these delusions arise only because of ignorance of the reality of Self. Thus Self which is existence consciousness bliss i.e. Brahman is mistaken as the limited jiva only due to ignorance.

The example given here is that of a ghost in a post. If the existence of post is not known, in darkness, one may mistake it as a form of a person or a ghost and get scared. It is only in delusion that one can mistake thus. If the existence and nature of the post is known clearly, then there can never be such delusions. This misapprehension occurs only due to non apprehension of the post. Similarly it is due to ignorance only that all the world of duality and the egoistic existence is superimposed on Self which is verily Brahman. Acharya gives the same example in Aparoksha anubhiti sloka 73 also as follows:

purushhatvena vai sthaaNurjalatvena mariichikaa .
vinirNiitaa vimuuDhena dehatvena tathaatmataa .. 73..

“Just as the stump of a tree is mistaken for a human figure and a mirage for water, so is the Atman determined to be the body by an ignorant person.”

In the second line Acharya is explaining that when the truth is understood, all the illusory existence loses its imaginary reality. The illusory appearances of head, legs etc. of the ghost in the post would immediately disappear once the post is seen in broad daylight or its nature is known. When ignorance about the post is removed the ghost is known only as an illusion on post and the fear also immediately disappears. Similarly, all the duality and the miseries due to the limitedness of Self disappear once Self is realized as Brahman which is but the substratum of all illusory creations. As Acharya puts in beautifully in Aparoksha anubhuti sloka 61,

yathaiva vyomni niilatva.n yathaa niiraM marusthale .
purushhastva.n yathaa sthaaNau tadvadvishva.n chidaatmani .. 61..

“Just as blueness in the sky, water in the mirage, and a human figure in a post (are but illusory), so is the universe in Atman.”


tatvasvaruupaanubhavaadutpannaM GYaanama.njasaa .
ahaM mameti chaaGYaanaM baadhate dig.hbhramaadivat.h .. 46..

Pada artha:
Tatva swaroopa anubhavaat: by experiencing the true nature of the Self
Atpannam: produced
Jnaanam: knowledge
Anjasaa: instantly
Aham: I
Mama: mine
Iti: thus
Cha: and
Ajnaanam: the knowledge
Baadhate: destroys
Dig bhrama vat: like the wrong notion about the directions.

The ignorance characterized by the notions ‘I’ and ‘Mine’ is destroyed by the knowledge produced by the realization of the true nature of the Self, just as right information removes the wrong notion about the directions.

In the previous sloka we learnt that the eternal Self appears to be limited only due to the ignorance just as how in darkness one perceives a ghost in a post. In this sloka Acharya mentions that when this ignorance which limits the Self and brings in the ego of ‘I’ and ‘mine’ is destroyed by the knowledge of the true nature of the Self.

As we have learnt in Laghu vakya vritti first few slokas, ignorance is the causal body of Jeeva. It is only because of this ignorance of the true nature of Self there arises the illusory world of duality and hence all associations with the world. Any associations will lead to aversions and attachments and due to the ego, the thoughts of ‘I’, ‘Me’, ‘Mine’ etc. arise, which will definitely lead to misery. As Lord says in Gita 16th chapter 15th sloka,

aaDhyo.abhijanavaanasmi ko.anyo.asti sadR^isho mayaa .
yakShye daasyaami modishhya ityajnYaanavimohitaaH ..

“I am rich and well-born. Who else is equal to me ? I will sacrifice, I will give, I will rejoice.” Thus are ignorant ones deluded.

When this ignorance is removed or destroyed by the experience born out of the knowledge and of the reality of Self, then all the dualities and hence the miseries also vanish and one is realized verily as Bliss absolute. Lord Krishna explains this in many places in Gita. Fourth chapter says..

yathaidhaa.nsi samiddho.agnirbhasmasaatkurute.arjuna .
JnaanaagniH sarvakarmaaNi bhasmasaatkurute tathaa .. 37
As kindled fire reduces fuel to ashes, O Arjuna, so does wisdom-fire reduce all actions to ashes.

Acharya here gives an example for this. When we are in a new place or are confused about the directions to go anywhere we ask someone for the right directions or look at the sun for knowing the directions. Knowledge arising from this will immediately resolve all confusions about the direction of our destination. Similarly, the ignorance that is limiting the jeeva because of which there is ego, is removed immediately by the Self knowledge. The limited ego immediately vanishes and all the world of objects is realized only to be an illusion on the Self when the knowledge of reality dawns.

The directions are there always whether we know them or not. So long as we are confused we take the east to be the west and so on. A right understanding gives us the true directions. Similarly, Self which is ever present is erroneously taken as the limited Jeeva and all limitations are imposed on it. It is only this ignorance that creates all the duality. So long as there is ignorance there will be happiness and sadness due to various associations with objects of the world. But once the knowledge of Self which is ever present dawns, all this sadness ceases immediately.

Let us learn more about such a realized one, a knower of reality in the next few slokas.

Hari OM

With regards,
Mallika R
What you have is God's gift to you and what you do with what you have is your gift to God


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